Abstract–To mitigate the rising and preventable deaths resulting from the opioid overdose crisis amid the COVID-19 pandemic, Applications Operation, and its partner Juxtopia, from the Juxtopia® Urban Innovation and Cooperative Entrepreneurship (JUICE) Network, will investigate the technical and commercial feasibility of developing the STOP opioid overdose (O.D.) mobile App. Phase I of the prototype tests the STOP OD system Application Operator evaluators’ technical feasibility in Baltimore, Maryland, and Atlanta, Georgia. The STOP OD SaaS design is a server operated by Juxtopia for prototyping purposes to deploy the product to Amazon Cloud. The STOP OD Service (4) a RESTful SaaS to process the request from millions of STOP OD Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Bystanders and broadcast STOP OD requests to thousands of Community Health Workers (CHW) users.
In 2017, professional estimates foresaw 2 million Americans with opioid addiction. The appraisals included 25 million people who suffer from chronic pain daily  calling for urgent and innovative scientific solutions, from prevention to intervention and treatment. COVID-19 has led to an alarming rise in overdose fatalities over the twelve months, as individuals who battle to recover from opioid dependence daily lost their focus amid the isolation, job loss, and the immeasurable stressors resulting from the varied social-distancing rules in effect .
To mitigate preventable deaths from opioid overdose and contribute to the HEAL initiative, Applications Operation LLC (2021), and its partner Juxtopia, the Juxtopia® Urban Innovation and Cooperative Entrepreneurship (JUICE). The proposed Phase I research and development (R&D) effort, Applications Operation LLC, will investigate the technical and commercial feasibility of developing a mobile App, STOP opioids (O.D.), to facilitate an on-demand response network of CHW across the United States (U.S.). The mobile App will deliver emergency naloxone spray treatment to individuals known for having an opioid overdose. In the 12 months ending last July, a surge of deaths from the previous year reported 61,000 lives lost — that reporting period only incorporated the initial five months of the pandemic (Bloomberg, 2021).
The network will investigate the technical and commercial feasibility of developing the STOP opioid (O.D.) mobile App. The STOP OD App design is to include capabilities for bystander (s), observing person (s), overdosing from opioids, to click a button, STOP OD on their cell phones, which will 1.) Track geo-coordinates of requesting phone (s) close to the overdosing person (s); and 2.) Broadcast a help request to all CHWs (i.e., trained in naloxone nasal spray administration) within a 5-mile radius. The first CHW (s) to accept and arrive at two target geo-location will then administer the naloxone spray to the overdosing person (s). Successful delivery of the naloxone spray to the overdosing individual will result in a digital payment to the CHW from Applications Operation.
In 2021, progress toward the opioid epidemic is reversing. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect every facet of life, and the grip on the current opioid crisis is holding the nation in a vise . This opioid epidemic reaches across every family and community life domain, including lost productivity and economic opportunity, intergenerational and childhood trauma, and extreme strain on community resources (e.g., including first responders, emergency rooms, hospitals, and treatment centers).
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the annual “economic burden” of prescription opioid misuse in the U.S. is $78.5 billion, including healthcare costs, lost productivity, addiction treatment, and criminal justice involvement. NIH created the HEAL initiative to initiate solutions for individuals, families, & communities affected by this devastating crisis. To mitigate preventable deaths from opioid overdoses & contribute to the HEAL initiative, Applications Operation, LLC (A.O.) will collaborate with a multidisciplinary R&D team from the Juxtopia® Urban Innovation. Cooperative Entrepreneurship (JUICE) Network, including Juxtopia (biomedical engineering) and Morgan State University (MSU) (health disparities center) to develop STOP OD, an innovative opioid overdose prevention process facilitated by an innovative software app & low-cost wearable augmented reality (A.R.) Goggles.
The proposed STOP OD has the potential to lead to a commercial product, discussed as follows. Researchers address the market need in the project, understanding that if prescription opioid misuse rates remain unchanged from 2015, about 700,400 people will die of opioid overdose in 2025. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  reported opioid-fatal and non-fatal overdoses have spiked since the coronavirus pandemic began. The STOP OD target markets are 1.) CBPR subscribers; & 2.) Department of Public Health. STOP OD will penetrate its target market, starting in Georgia & Maryland with 4 Million & 3 Million potential CBPR subscribers and the respective Department of Public Health. The business model reflects the Applications Operation LLC (A.O.) revenue generation through accepting monetary community overdose lifesaver contributions from STOP OD CBPR subscribers.
Problems And Risks
Accurate administration of Naloxone. A potential risk is the inability to validate how CHWs administer Naloxone on a patient simulator mannequin. The second potential risk is the CHW running out of Naloxone. The failure to substantiate how CHWs administer Naloxone on a patient simulator mannequin.
CO-I, Dr. Doswell, completed an NIH SBIR Phase 1, 1R43ES025447-01 investigating technical feasibility for customizing wearable Goggles from the A.R. Juxtopia® CAMMRAD AR platform [r], for after-market integration into FireFighter PPE; and artificial intelligence (A.I.) instruction software to train FireFighter EMTs in HAZWOPER skills. One skill evaluated in an IRB study was Naloxone nasal delivery. Dr. Doswell also secured a DOD contract to train U.S. Army Medics on clinical skills using Juxtopia® wearable A.R. in controlled and austere environments demonstrating lighter-weight, rugged and lower-cost A.R.
In conclusion, Stop O.D. is prime to addressing a national solution for the vulnerable population of Americans affected by opioid addiction in the current stressors of Covid-19, isolation, and economic depression. Stop O.D. is a minority-led organization and innovation focusing on safeguarding our community populations to prevent the intricate and public health crisis of opioid misuse and addiction as the pandemic compounds it. In response to the challenges of COVID-19, agencies and organizations have provided guidance and resources to assist providers, individuals, and communities  with evidence-based resources; during this rapidly evolving situation, Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) providers and care teams need support, A.O. proposes to Stop O.D.
Juxtopia the Juxtopia® Urban Innovation and Cooperative Entrepreneurship (JUICE) Network
Stop O.D. The STOP opioid overdose (O.D.) mobile App the cooperative efforts and works of Applications Operation and Juxtopia.
A.O. Applications Operation the principal cooperative partner of the Stop O.D. application’s development.
COVID-19 The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
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- The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives. 2021.
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AUTHOR: June Worsham Haygood is a Healthcare Science teacher and HOSA advisor at Renaissance Middle School in Fairburn, Georgia. She has a broad background in the healthcare field, with specific training and expertise in pharmacy and outreach community health. Currently, June oversees her own technology-based company, Applications Operation, LLC, and the STOP OD app with knowledge, leadership, training, and motivation. STOP OD is a crowd-sourced application created to give the average person knowledge and successfully navigate the trials and stress associated with opioid addiction and overdose.
June earned her Associates’ degree in Respiratory Care at Georgia Medical Institute. She later went on to earn her Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) from American InterContinental University in Business Administration. Inspired by her love and passion for healthcare, June later obtained her MBA from Benedictine University in Healthcare Administration and a Master’s in Public Health (MPH) from Benedictine University. In addition to various degrees, she has maintained certification in Basic Life Support, Certified Pharmacy Technician (CPhT), and a New Teacher Institute from Georgia State University.
Over her career, she has worked first-hand as a Certified Pharmacy Technician, Healthcare Science Educator, and a board member to multiple non-profits focused on building partnerships and closing the gap in healthcare and health science education. In this role, she has provided case management, direct service coordination and has collaboratively developed and implemented individualized service plans for people living with HIV/AIDS and incarcerated individuals. June’s passion and advocacy for the disparaged and underserved populations have led her on a mission to bring awareness and education to the world surrounding the topics she holds highly near and dear to her heart.
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